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Chapter 5:
INDONESIA: Surabaya And Padang

I. Background

A. History

Surabaya and Padang have been important harbor cities for centuries. Both are natural harbors in that they are located at strategic geographic areas. Surabaya is located in a small strait between the island of Java and the adjacent, smaller island of Madura. Its position protects the ships from the waves of the Java sea and Madura sea. It has been the center of trade even before the arrival of Western people in the archipelago. The exchange of rice from Java and spices from the Moluccas took place from about the time of the existence of the "silk road", thus bringing Indonesian spices to Europe. When the Dutch East Indies Company gained control of the Moluccas at the turn of the sixteenth century, and subsequently the island of Java, Surabaya continued to grow as the eastern harbor of Indonesia. In terms of volume, the harbor of Surabaya was the largest because it served the hinterland of Java producing agricultural products as raw materials for European industries, i.e. rubber, coffee, tea, etc.

With the emergence of steamships in the nineteenth century, Padang became a strategic port for two reasons. After the British left Bencoolen (Bengkulu) in exchange for Singapore from the Netherlands following the Napoleonic War, Padang became an important town with Teluk Bayur, as the harbor, then called Emma Haven. Until recently, West Sumatra, where Padang is located, was the only producer of coal in Indonesia. The coal was used to fuel the steamships, which controlled the oceans of the time. Ships coming and going from the Netherlands to the Netherlands Indies would take coal from Emma Haven, near Padang, and fresh water from the island of Weh at the northern tip of Sumatra. Emma Haven, as Surabaya, was protected from the rough Indian Ocean by a group of islands off the coast of Sumatra. Hence, until the Second World War, Surabaya and Padang were two out of five major harbor cities of Indonesia, the others being Jakarta (then Batavia), Medan, and Ujung Padang (then Makassar).

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After independence Indonesia faced a shortage of capital and skill to rehabilitate the plantations. A number of rebellions against the Central Government prevented the country from undertaking any significant attempt at development. When the New Order Government emerged in 1966, Indonesia moved from a controlled to an open economy. Foreign investment was invited and assistance to Indonesia was organized by IGGI, a consortium of western countries. With foreign investment, particularly in oil, gas, copper and forest exploitation and with foreign aid for the public sector, Indonesia embarked upon the first Five Year Plan in 1969.

The immediate emphasis was on the development of agriculture in order to compensate for the shortage of rice. At that time Indonesia imported some 2.5 million tons of rice. Rice hybrids such as the IRR-5 and IRR-8 were introduced, and fertilizer production was more than doubled in a few years. Sprayers for insecticides were first imp6rted, then produced domestically, to protect the new rice varieties from plant diseases. Concurrently, irrigation was rehabilitated and expanded and improved planting techniques were introduced. The so called five means plus farm credits produced what is now known as the Green Revolution, which helped increase rice production to a level of self-sufficiency in 1985.

Another important policy was the rehabilitation and expansion of the economic infrastructure, particularly roads and harbors. By the end of the 1970s, there was the so called "Colt revolution" in which Mitsubishi minibuses could reach almost any area within Java and much of the area outside. The economy grew rapidly, partly triggered by the oil boom of 1974 and 1979, when oil prices reached $34 per barrel. Oil products comprised 60 percent of Indonesian exports and thereby contributed substantially to the improvement of infrastructure and services. Foreign investment, domestic private investment, and government investment contributed to the increase of per capita income from approximately $100 in the later sixties to over $500 in the 1980s.

After the drop in the oil price from $34 to $9 in 1982, the government encouraged the private sector to playa more important role in the economy. This policy brought about the growth of economic conglomerates along with all its consequences.

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B. The Growth of Cities in Indonesia

Indonesia is predominantly a rural country. The 1990 Census estimates that only 30 percent of the population lives in urban areas. An urban area is defined as an area with a density of five thousand people per square kilometer; less than 25 percent of its people employed in agriculture; and it having eight out of fourteen modern facilities (i.e. electricity, running water, paved roads, hospitals, high schools, post offices etc.). Urban areas so defined are not always synonymous with cities. On the island of Java, where about 60 percent of the population currently resides, most large cities are under-bounded, that is, the actual built up urban areas are larger than the administratively defined city. On the other hand, outside Java, most cities are over-bounded. They can include large expanses of rural areas and forests. Samarinda, a provincial capital in East Kalimantan (Borneo), for example, has a land area of 2700 square kilometers, more than four times the size of Jakarta. The built up area, however, is small relative to the areas of forest, marshes, and jungles. Jakarta, the capital city has the status of a separate province, one of the twenty-seven provinces for the whole country.

Indonesia now has fifty municipalities, i.e. cities with a self government, comprising a mayor and a local house of representatives. The size of municipalities varies greatly from about 20,000 to more than 2.5 million inhabitants. Surabaya is the largest of these municipalities. There are in addition some fifteen administrative cities, i.e. cities with no self government. In the last few decades, new cities have been added. This the result of a law requiring capitals of regencies to move once they become a'municipality. A new city is built which eventually may become an administrative city, then becoming a candidate for a municipality.

Two other sources of urban growth are natural increase and reclassification. Urban areas are growing faster because of natural increase and migration. As of now it is estimated that migration contributes about 50 percent of this growth and is increasing.

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Natural increase, the difference between birth and death rates, is still important, even though Indonesia fertility has fallen dramatically under the influence of both economic development and the successful and well known national family planning program. Urban areas have a younger age structure and lower death rate compared to rural areas. These factors contribute to a higher rate of natural increase. This young age structure is likely to persist, as in migration from rural areas consists mainly of young persons, who then go on to have families in the urban areas.

With industrialization progressing at a rapid rate, particularly in Java, urbanization is likely to continue at a rapid rate. In addition, reclassification of rural areas as urban (mostly by decree of the government) and annexation of adjacent rural areas by cities have also added to urbanization. Minor disputes take place between city governments and provinces on whether urbanized areas adjacent to cities should be incorporated into the city. Such areas are occupied by sub-urbanities who are relatively wealthy and hence offer a potential source of property tax for local government.

Localities that are urban in character without a municipality or administrative city status, are treated as rural areas. Such localities fight for administrative city status, because this classification provides the local government with more facilities. In turn this will accelerate the growth of cities.

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Looking at the distribution of cities in Indonesia, most Indonesian cities are located at what is called the crescent, which runs from the Straits of Malacca southward to the Java Sea and then northward to the Celebes Sea. Most cities in Sumatra, Java, and Sulawesi are on the outer rim of th1J crescent, while cities in the island province of Riau in Sumatra and cities in Kalimantan are on the inner rim of the crescent. Surabaya is on the outer rim of the crescent, while Padang is outside the crescent.

Table 1 and figure 1 show the overall population growth of Surabaya and Padang. Already around 1900 Surabaya was about five times the size of Padang. Today that ratio remains about the same. Except for the period after 1960, Surabaya grew at 0.5 to 1 percentage point faster than Padang. The extremely rapid growth of Padang after 1960, which is clearly evident in both the table and the figure, resulted from a reclassification that gave Padang a vast expanse of what is still very much a rural area.

Table 1 Population and Growth Rate, Surabaya and Padang, 1900-87
Year Surabaya Padang
1900
a.a. gowth
1930
a.a.growth
1961
a.a.growth
1971
a.a. growth
1980
a.a. growth
1987
146,944
2.85%
341,675
3.55%
1,007,945
4.44%
1,556,255
2.99%
2,207,913
2.85%
2,469,637
35,158
1.30%
52A 054
tj.3%
143,699
9.33
350,277
3.56
480,922
2.43%
568,885

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Figure 1. Population Change

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II. Padang

A. Population

Padang is the capital of the province of West Sumatra where the native Minangkabau ethnic group lives. The capital of the province used to be Bukittinggi, about one hundred kilometers northeast into the mountains from Padang. However, after the rebellion in the mid-1950s was over, the provincial capital was moved to Padang. Thereafter, the area successively expanded by incorporating rural villages into the Padang municipality. Today it is larger in area than the capital city of Jakarta. Table 2 gives the population of Padang by sub-districts. The size of population varies greatly between sub-districts, with those on the water front being densely populated. The larger districts with the lowest density have been incorporated only recently.

Legends say that the term Minangkabau comes from the word minang, which means winning, and kabau, which means buffalo. The story says that the people of that area outwitted the strong Javanese army by proposing that buffaloes fight on their behalf. The Javanese selected a large, strong buffalo, and the locals selected a baby buffalo, but secretly attached a knife on its head. After being separated from its mother for some time before the fight, the young calf ran to the big buffalo for milk. In the process the baby buffalo with the knife secured to its nose, hit the other's stomach, causing it to collapse. The local people won their independence in the buffalo fight and until now the roofs of Minangkabau traditional houses have the form of the unsweeping horns of the buffalo.

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The Minangkabau people are among the most peripatetic of all Indonesia's 400 ethnic groups. There were only about four million Minangkabau people out of a total population of about 180 million 1990. Nonetheless, they can be found throughout Indonesia, with Padang restaurants even in small towns.

The high mobility of the Minangkabau is partly due to the matrilineal structure of the family. Land right pass through the female rather than the male line. In traditional Minangkabau homes men stay and work in the mother's family and spend only the night with their wives. Boys, once they grow up have to sleep in the praying house or mosque and stay with or help the parents during daylight. Young men are expected to travel and work or study elsewhere (merantau) and return home occasionally. Even after marriage, men may travel for a lengthy period and leave their wives with the maternal family or the "big house" (Rumah Gadang).

There are wide variations in population growth between sub-districts. There is, however, no simple explanation. Officials say that an area's rate of growth depends on density, and people's desire to move to places with cheaper land. Experience has shown that where new roads are built, real estate companies grab the opportunity and it becomes a high growth area. Most are compact areas with high density and encourage further growth in adjacent areas. Housing has varying price levels, but all are obtained through credit with the government's support and facilities.

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Table 2 Population by Sub-district, Padang, 1971-87
Sub-district Area (sq. Km) 1971 1980 1987 Density
1980 1987
Padang Selatan
Padang Barat
Padang Timur
Pada Utara
Kota engah
N anggalo
Kuranji
Pauh
Lubuk Begalung
Lubuk Chilean
Bungus Teluk-Kabung
10.03
7.00
8.08
8.15
236.25
8.07
57.41
146.28
26.91
85.99
100.78
45 848
67;211
59 484
23;369
34,575
10,612
38,718
16,246
30,438
14,293
9,933
55,390
80,534
75,817
47,488
49,038
25,330
47,157
21,392
44654
21;461
12,340
56,685
81,237
75,447
60,275
64,400
41,590
55,678
26,771
58,763
28,587
15,452
5,523
11,505
9,383
5,827
208
3,139
827
146
1,493
250
122
5652
11;605
9,338
7,396
290
5,154
970
183
2,184
332
153
Padang
Municipality
694.96 350,727 480,607 568,885 692 819

Click Here to see larger view

Overall growth dropped from the 1970s to the 1980s (Table 3). Authorities point to successful family planning and easier migration to other cities because of improved transportation. Also, accelerated development in the last decade has diversified employment in the secondary and tertiary sectors of the country.

The city government is trying to reduce the differential growth in the sub-districts. Reducing inequality is a goal in all sectors as well as regions. The concept of harmony and balance and minimum inequality is considered proper and appropriate, and underlies government thinking at all levels.

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Table 3 Population Growth, Padang 1971- 87 (in Percent)
Sub District 1971-1980 1980-1987
Padang Selatan
Padang Barat
Padang Timur
Pada Utara
Koto engah
Nangwo
KuranJl
Pauh
Lubuk Bung
Lubuk C ean
Bungus Teluk Kabung
2.1
2.0
8.2
2.7
4.0
10.2
2.2
3.4
4.4
4.6
2.4
0.3
0.1
-0.1
3.5
4.9
7.3
5.3
7.4
4.0
4.2
3.3
Padang Municipality 3.6 2.4

Projections for the current Fifth Five Year Plan called Repelita for Padang are given in table 4. The average rate of growth is higher in the projection than it was in the 1980s.

Table 4 Population Projection, Padang, 1991
Sub-district 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 Growth (%)
Padang Selatan
Padang Barat
Padang Timur
Pada Utara
Kota engah
N anggalo
Kuranji
Pauh
Lubuk Begalung
Lubuk Chilean
Bungus Teluk-Kabung
64,879
90,845
92,847
77,494
67,414
44,156
61,091
28,097
61,247
29,735
14,804
66,242
92,207
94,611
78,966
70,650
45,128
66,895
29,867
62,533
30,330
15,159
67,633
93,591
96,409
80,467
74,041
46,120
73,250
31,749
63,846
30,936
15,523
69,053
94,994
98,241
81,966
77 ,595
47,135
80,209
33,749
65,187
31,555
15,896
70,503
96,419
100,107
85,533
81,319
48,172
87,828
35,875
65,556
32,186
16,277
2.1
1.5
1.9
1.9
4.8
2.2
9.5
6.3
2.1
2.0
2.4
Padang
Municipality
632,609 652,588 673,565 695,610 718,795 3.2

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B. Infrastructure and Services

The New Order Government took control in 1966 and embarked on the REPELITA I in 1969. Top priority was given to rehabilitating and expanding the road system, for intra- and inter-city roads. This improvement is reflected in the growth of transportation. It is certainly true that this increase is due to improved income as a result of development in general.

Table 5 gives the number of public means of transportation in Padang. Until a decade or so ago, public transportation was mostly limited to non-motor vehicles, the horse driven cart and human powered tricycle were dominant. In the last decade the numbers of traditional vehicles did not grow, nor did they decline. Tricycles are discouraged through different measures for reasons of efficiency and esthetics. The most common modern transportation means are oplet and bemo (taxies with special routes which operate as buses, but can stop anywhere along the route). Other common means are minibuses and buses (including double deck buses). The data for these vehicles are not exact, because they are based on registration numbers; some vehicles might not actually be running.

Table 5. Number of Vehicles, Pasang 1984-88
Year Type of Vehicles
City Busses Taxis
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
59
71
108
108
148
885
885
1,018
1,018
1,082

Table 6 gives the number of passenger on a yearly and daily average basis. The numbers show a moderate increase which, for a population of more than half a million in 1988, might well be considered adequate.

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Table 6 Number of Passengers, Padang, 1984-88
Year Yearly Passengers Average daily Passengers
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
93,122,390
95,760,088
99,760,088
102,248,910
107,933,949
255,130
262,356
272,063
280,134
295,709

The projection for 1989-1993, the REPELIA V is given in table 7. The daily average of passengers would be 388,000 in 1993 compared to 296,000 in 1988.

Table 7 Projected Passengers, Padang, 1989-93
Year Yearly Passengers Average daily Passengers
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
113,935,077
120,269,867
126,956,872
134,051,674
141,466,945
312,151
329,506
347,827
367,166
387,851

The total number of buses and taxis would be 1646 vehicles for 1993 compared to 1130 for 1988 as given in table 8. It must be added that as of mid 1991, Padang had no roving metered taxis.

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Table 8 Projected Number of Vehicles, Padang, 1989-90
Year City Bus Taxis Total
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
158
167
177
188
199
1,146
1,215
1,288
1,365
1,447
1,304
1,382
1,465
1,553
1,646


C. Housing

Housing has been given attention in the last fifteen years or so. For urban areas the government has introduced low cost housing through a subsidized credit system by state banks. Subsequently, private real estates for middle and high income groups have grown, particularly on the suburb of cities where land is relatively cheap. The data on housing are based on to housing built through credit for banks and privately built houses. The central government has monitored the housing development, but has left the implementation of regulations to local authorities. Local authorities have designated certain areas for real estates and have performed the role of an intermediary between the real estates and owners of land. It should be mentioned that real estate housing is not based on property rights, but on a user's right for a period of twenty five years. After twenty-five years a new user's right has to be obtained from government authorities. Also, land ownership in West Sumatra is by clan, not by individual.

Table 9 shows the number of housing units in Padang at the end of the third Repelita, i.e. 76,440. The average number of persons living in a housing unit is 6.9. There would appear to be a shortage of housing, given that the average family size in Indonesia is 5 and decreasing. It is projected, however, that the growth of housing development of 3.2 percent is higher than the population growth of less than 2 percent. Even so shortages may take place, given that in the past many married couples stayed in the "big house" and now nuclear families are more common, even in West Sumatra. Thus the ratio between housing units and the number of people will continue to decline, thereby accelerating the demand for housing. The houses that are built through real estates are based on a family of four. Critics say that this may weaken the family ties that prevail now where three generation families are acceptable. As the number of older people are increasing, many people are questioning the wisdom of a four family housing unit.

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Table 9 Number of Houses, Padang, 1988-93 (Projected)
  1988 1993  
Sub- Districts Houses Percent Houses Percent Growth (Percent)
Padang Selatan
Padang Barat
Padang Utara
Padang Timur
Kota Tangah
Nanggalo
Kuranji
Pauh
Lubuk Chilean
Lubuk Begalung
Bungus Teluk
7,531
9,991
8,333
9,572
9,595
5,832
8,088
4,284
4,711
6,251
2,251
9.8
13.1
10.9
12.5
12.6
7.6
10.6
5.6
6.2
8.1
2.9
7,958
10,561
8,808
10,116
14,365
7,243
9,629
5,068
5,161
8,052
2,377
8.9
11.8
9.8
11.3
16.1
8:1
10.8
5.7
5.8
9.0
2.5
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
8.5
4.4
3.5
3.4
1.8
1.5
1.1
Total 76.440 100.0 89.338 100.0 3.2

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D. Electric Power

One of the problems of Indonesia is a shortage of electric power. Electric power development is a central government concern. Since Repelita I, electric power generation has been given a high priority, building hydropower dams, and developing diesel powered electricity as fuel. A development of a complex of nuclear power stations (located in Central Java) is underway and is expected to be in operation by the turn of the century.

The growth of electric power in Padang is shown in table 10. The table shows the number of distribution stations and the length of electric wires. The most important change is the growth during Repelita IV from 213 to 392 stations and from 459.0 to 857.4 kilometers of wire. While the proportion of houses with electric power is low, the service is generally reliable.

Table 10 Distribution Stations and Wires Network, Padang
Year Distribution Station High* Low Total
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
213
273
295
304
392
133.1
217.6
259.7
310.9
370.8
325.9
323.1
415.6
484.5
486.6
459.0
540.7
675.3
795.4
857.4

*kilometers

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E. Water Supply

Clean water is a major problem in Indonesia. The emphasis is now on drinking water. Repelita V has targets for production, consumption, customers, and networks of drinking water. Table 11 shows the targets for Padang. Currently most of the supply of drinking water comes from either digging or pumping wells.

Table 11 Target of Drinking Water, Padang, 1989-92
Year Production
(000 M3)
Consumption
(000 M3)
Customer Network
1989
1990
1991
1992
Growth
10,617
11,675
13,503
17,031
12.5
7,219
8,639
9,992
12,773
15.3
16,591
19,573
22,473
28,153
14.1
401,373
482,123
558,373
710,873
15.4

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F. Health Facilities

Health care for the general public is given at Health Centers of which there is at least one in every sub-district. Subhealth centers are located further away from sub-district centers. Integrated health services are available in the neighborhood and are run by the community. Those who can afford to do so, look for private practices in the evening. The health facilities in Padang are given in tables 12 and 13.

Table 12 New Health Facilities Built, Padang, 1984-88
Year Health Facilities Sub Health Facilities Integrated Health Service
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
12
12
13
15
15
32
37
37
35
35
-
200
244
855
896

Table 13 Health Facilities, Padang, 1989
Facilities Total
General Hospital
Armed Forces Hospital
Special Hospital
Private Hospital
Clinics
Health Centers
Sub Health Centers
Beds
1
1
1
6
45
15
35
1,442

Indonesians need a lot of water, i.e. for bathing twice a day, for praying five times a day for Moslems, washing, etc. In rural areas river water is still much used, in urban areas, for esthetic reasons, this is limited by the authorities.

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G. Selected Infrastructure and Services

The government has made great efforts to improve the welfare of the people. This is reflected in the expansion of housing facilities, roads, sewage, electricity, water, educational facilities, schools, and mosque/praying places for Moslems.

Table 14 gives a general picture of the conditions at the end of Repelita IV and plans for Repelita V. The emphasis has been given on the provision of piped water. Electric power is high on the list, followed by pre-school education. Kindergartens are taking care of pre-school education. It has, however, not been compulsory. Compulsory education is so far combined to six years of education for children seven to twelve years of age. There are plans to increase compulsory education to nine years, in which preparation for teachers is now underway.

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Table 14 Human Settlement Targets, Padang, 1988 and 1993
Items 1988 1993 Increase
Absolute Percent
Size of Settlement (Ha)
Number of Houses (unit)
Length of Road (meter)
Length of sewage (meter)
Houses with electricity (unit)
Houses with Piped Water Supply (unit)
Total Preschool (unit)
Total Primary School
Total Mosque & Prayer Place
7,532
89,338
441,000
715,000
53,685
11,724
82
416
826
8,052
104,938
571,000
799,882
83,950
52,469
132
482
857
520
15,600
130,000
84,882
30,265
40,745
50
66
31
6.9
17.5
29.5
11.9
56.4
347.5
61.0
15.9
3.8


H. Education

Minangkabau people value education very highly. Many of Indonesia's intellectuals come from West Sumatra. There are two institutes of high learning in Padang. i.e. the University of Andalas and the Institute of Teacher Education. The student body is not large and the best students find their way to the good Universities in Java.

Table 15 gives the number of schools and the primary and students in the primary and secondary levels. While the primary enrollment is reaching a saturation point, the secondary school enrollment has been increasing over the years.

Table 15 Education Development, Padang
  1983 1987
Type of School School Student School Student
Preschool
Primary School
Junior High School
Senior High School
64
387
69
56
5.884
94.396
37.732
28.259
82
421
82
69
6.683
96.613
37.308
38.702

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I. Harbor Activities

Padang harbor serves inter-island as well international routes (table 16).

Table 16 Harbor Activities, Padang, 1985 and 1990
Traffic 1985 1990
Shipping Call
Ocean Going Ships
Inter Island Ships
Tankers
Pioneer Ships
Local Shipping
TOTAL
273
439
99
105
1,002
1,918
273
611
154
75
1,258
2,371
DWT
Ocean Going Ships
Inter Island Ships
Tankers
Pioneer Ships
Local Shipping
2,928,106
1,179,135
532,058
58,000
60,758
3,046,051
1,863,539
797,537
55,841
168,399
Total 4,758,057 5,931,367

There was no important increase in the total number of ships visiting Telukbayur, the harbor of Padang. There is, however, a change in the composition. Inter-island shipping grew rapidly as did the number of tankers. The increase in inter-island shipping is a reflection of increasing domestic trade; and the increase in the number of tankers reflects the increasing demand for fuel for transportation.

Table 17 gives a summary of cargo traffic. The volume of export and import during the period of 1982-1985 dropped in part due to the fall in oil prices in 1982; imports were cut in order to save foreign exchange.

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Table 17 Cargo Traffic, Padang, 1985 and 1990
Activity 1985 1990
IMPORT
EXPORT
INTER ISLAND LOADING
INTER ISLAND UNLOADING
a. CARGO
b; FUEL
LOCAL SHIPPING LOADING LOCAL SHIPPING UNLOADING
88,111
981,725
666,981

443,392
326,145
45,174
8,213
26,773
1,119,306
1,321,806

591,563
495,564
26,769
5,301

The commodities exported are rattan, cassia vera, nutmeg (uncaria), moulding, plywood, fertilizer, resin, etc. The commodities imported are sugar, fertilizer, asphalt, paper, gypsum, building material, machineries, rice, etc. Table 14 gives the destination of exports. Asia is by far the largest export destination, Japan being the most important.

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Table 18 Export by Destination, Padang, 1985 and 1990
Areas 1985 1990
America
Europe
Asia
Australia
Mrica
79,863
149,216
752,084
0
562

107,345
120,675
891,286
0
0

Total 981,725 1,119,306

Tables 19 and 20 give commodities that leave Telukbayur and arrive in Telukbayur. These figures indicate the importance of Padang in the inter-island trade. Cement is the most important commodity exported to other areas. Coal production, which was the life blood of West Sumatra, has been supplemented by mines in South Sumatra and Kalimantan. The fuel is widely used in the cement factories of Padang.

Table 19 Freight Loading, Padang, 1985 and 1990
Commodity 1985 1990
Coal
Cement
Clinkers
Moulding
Logs
Cloves
Tapioca
Palm Oil
Plywood
Others
65,341
501,321
62,995
0
20,077
1,280
1,200
0
0
2,208

177,989
980,759
75,581
0
46,667
1,549
0
49,906
8,052
2,246

Total 666,981 1,321,805

The commodities entering West Sumatra through Padang are consumption goods and intermediate products produced in other areas. Cement and coal are the major exports of West Sumatra. Overall, she is a net exporter of goods.

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Table 20 Inter-island Freight Unloading, Padang, 1985 and 1990
Commodity 1985 1990
Sugar
Flour
Tapioca
Rice
Salt
Fertilizer
Gypsum
Logs
White Cement
Plywood
Grease
Chemicals
Paper
Building Materials
Iron Sand
Asphalt
Others
31,551
12,630
932
18,998
20,888
166,889
18,565
51,843
500
100
8,542
1,3115
9,471
13,115
17,350
0
71,327

16,401
13,944
20
37,413
34,138
104,780
96,125
171,369
1,140
0
8,613
529
529
4,868
13,892
5,405
53,723

Total 443.972 591,563

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Table 21. Outgoing ships Carrying Cement, Padang
  Inter-Island Export Total
Year Ships Tons Ships Tons Ships Tons
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
188
203
211
254
226
314
342
651,736
501,321
440,686
502,762
494,112
593,067
980,759
15
23
35
22
27
42
34
116,600
205,665
332,709
256,020
398,544
521,108
391,192
203
226
246
276
253
356
376
732,336
706,986
773,395
758,782
892,656
1,114,175
1,371,951

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Table 22 Outgoing Ships Carrying Coal, Padang
  Inter-Island Export Total
Year Ships Tons Ships Tons Ships Tons
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1
9
13
22
34
38
38
3,055
65,314
99,089
116,849
201,680
187,685
177,989
58
68
41
20
43
68
45
391,399
461,055
324,692
179,009
433,130
641,488
488,832
59
77
54
42
77
106
83
394,454
526,369
423,781
295,858
634,810
829,173
666,821

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III. Surabaya

Surabaya covers an area of 292 square kilometers, slightly less than half of that of Jakarta. The population of Surabaya has grown rapidly since the turn of the century. In 1870 the Dutch Indies Government introduced the open door policy and agrarian reform. Investors could obtain a ninety-nine year land lease. This encourages long-term plantations. All of Java eventually came under plantations, and East Java became the center of the sugar industry. Coffee, rubber, and tobacco became the dominant crops of East Java. During the colonial period, Surabaya was the main harbor for East Java as well as for the southern part of eastern Indonesia.

The population of Surabaya was 1.2 million as reported by the first Census of the Republic of Indonesia in 1961. The population and its annual growth rate are shown in tables 23 and 24. In the 1971 Census, the population was reported to be 1.6 million, an annual growth of 3 percent. The 1980 Census gave a figure of 2.0 million or a growth of 2.85 percent during the period of 1971-1980.

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Table 23 Population by Sub-district, Surabaya, 1971-87
Sub District Area (sq Km) 1971 1980 1987 Density
1980 1987
SURABAYASELATAN
Lakar Santri
Karang Pilang
Wonocolo
Wonokromo
Sawahan
Genteng
Tegalsari
34.190
25.238
16.186
6.695
7.638
3.530
4.900
20,172
52,217
40,594
215,632
157,855
73,304
91,767
28,138
81,645
86,239
171,847
205,668
89,704
129,571
53,200
111,628
121,735
193,626
235,984
77,127
132,065
823
3,235
5,328
25,668
26,927
25,412
26,443
1,556
4,423
7,521
28,921
30,896
21,849
26,952
SURABAYA TIMUR
Gubeng
Runkut
Sukolito
Keneran
Taebaksari
Simokerto
7.492
35.707
33.594
12.498
9.093
2.658
128,211
21,139
27,278
19,334
126,984
101,225
161,100
56,488
58,823
41,706
163,601
112,471
156,643
138,900
116,706
67,714
203,129
124,254
21,503
1,582
1,751
3337
17,992
42,314
20,908
3,890
3,474
5,418
22,339
46,746
SURABAYA UTARA
Semampir
Pabean Cantikan
Krembangan
Bubutan
Tandes
Benowo
5.340
4.425
4.582
3.453
32.184
41.040
97,402
40,467
143,838
155,578
34,533
8,700
162,133
101,713
125,510
122,802
91,789
23,023
177,096
102,018
126,798
117,633
167,904
32,340
30,362
22,986
27,392
35,564
2,852
561
33,164
23,055
27,673
34,067
5,217
788
Surabaya 290,443 1,556,194 2,017,417 2,469,637 6,946 8,503

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Table 24. Population Growth, Surabaya, 1971-87 (in Percent)
Sub-District 1971-1980 1980-1987
South Surabaya    
Lakarsantri
Karangpilang
Wonocolo
Wonokromo
Sawahan
Genteng
Tegalsari
3.7
5.0
8.4
-2.5
2.9
2.2
3.8
9.1
4.5
4.9
1.7
1.9
-2.1
0.3
East Surabaya    
Gubeng
Rungkut
Sukolilo
Kenj eran
Tambaksari
Simokerto
2.5
10.5
8.5
8.5
2.8
1.1
-0.4
12.8
9.8
6.9
3.1
1.4
North Surabaya    
Semampir
Pabean Cantian
Krembangan
Bubutan
Tandes
Benowo
5.7
10.2
-1.5
-2.6
10.9
10.8
1.3
0.4
.04
-0.6
8.6
4.8
Total 3.0 2.9

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Following the lead of Jakarta which assumed the acronym Jabotabek as a planning unit, (standing for Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang and Bekasi), Surabaya assumed Gerbangkertosusila (G.K.S.). Gerbangkertosusila, in local Javanese, means gate to prosperity and order. It stands for Gersik, Bangkalan, Mojokerto, Surabaya, Sidoardjo, and Lamongan. These cities vary in distance from approximately thirty to sixty kilometers from Surabaya. Surabaya's share of the area's population was 28.4, 31.1, and 33.2 percent for 1961, 1971, and 1980 respectively.


A. Topography

Surabaya is located in a low plain with less than twenty-five meters, above sea level. It is divided in two by the MAS river, an arm of the Brantas delta comprising of the MAS and Porong rivers. The delta is a fertile area, once home of the Majapahit Kingdom, supposedly the largest kingdom to ever control a major part of present Indonesia.

The mean rainfall is 1,321 mm, of which 90 percent is concentrated in the rainy season from November to May. The average annual temperature is 26.9 degrees Celsius.

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B. Land Use

Eastern and western Surabaya are predominantly rural., and the central region mainly urban. Urbanization in the central areas encroaches on the eastern and western parts. The central business districts are located in the northern and southern parts of the city. An industrial estate called Rungkut was created in the southeastern part of the city.


C. Traffic Flows

There are major traffic flows in the island of Java, i.e.

-Jakarta - Bekasi - Cikampek - Cirebon - Tegal- Semarang.

-Jakarta - Bogor - Bandung.

-Semarang - Jogjakarta.

-Surabaya - Sidoardjo - Malang.

-Surabaya - Mojokerto - Jombang - Madura - Semarang.

Most of the roads between these cities are two lane ways, a small proportion are four way toll roads. Toll roads are located between Jakarta and Cikampek, Jakarta - Bogor, Bandung Padalarang, and Surabaya - Pandaan (part of Surabaya - Malang).

Vehicle ownership has grown rapidly since 1971. Passenger cars grew from 21,133 in 1971 to 45,525 in 1981. The number of trucks increased from 9,175 in 1971 to 27,506 in 1981. The number of buses increased from 968 to 1,678 and motorcycles from 53,652 to 206,926. Total vehicles grew from 84,928 in 1971 to 252,491 in 1980 and 439,451 in 1987.

Limiting the number of taxis and buses, the number increased from 4,307 and 1,159 in 1979 and 4,322 and 3,762 in 1989. Table 25 shows the growth of these public vehicles by year. Roving taxis have been introduced to Surabaya in the past few years.

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Table 25 Public Transportation Vehicles, Surabaya, 1987-89
Year Taxis Buses
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

4,307
4,374
4,307
4,151
3,981
3,495
2,812
2,803
2,678
2,507
4,322

1,159
1,385
1,352
1,244
1,382
1,218
953
1,299
1,293
3,010
3,762


D. Electricity

Electric power is a scarce commodity in Indonesia, and its supply is centrally planned. The major sources are hydro-electricity, steam and diesel power. A nuclear power is being planned for the north-eastern part of Java. All resources of electric power have been linked into one system. The growth of electric consumption is outlined in Table 26.

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Table 26 Number of customers of Electricity by Category, Surabaya
(In KV A) 1980-87
Year Household Industry Social Business Total
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
104.615
124.490
141.405
153.275
169.146
187.322
207.005
222.183
138.343
154.020
167.799
158.391
186.172
208.394
248.387
253.260
6.831
8.678
9.515
13.851
14.382
60.666
62.409
63.724
43.839
44.845
49.079
52.241
57.051
62.256
74.043
84.877
293.628
332.033
367.798
403.563
422.751
518.638
519.844
634.044

Water is abundant due to high rainfall. However, residential water (clean water for drinking and other uses) is limited. As of now, only some 40 percent of residential areas in Surabaya are served with piped water (table 27).

Table 27 Number of Customers of Piped Water by Category, 1978-89
Year Household Business Industry Social Government Agencies
1978
1980
1985
1989
53,782
66,463
90,449
104,149
10,675
11,905
12,260
12,396
-
-
1,072
1,085
341
428
2,128
2,069
1,575
1,819
1,869
1,614

Some 20 percent is supplied by water vendors who obtain water from central piped water stations. The remainder comes from either open or pumped wells. In an effort to supply more water, the government has looked to increasing water from springs in the mountain areas and to water purification plants which use water from the MAS river, a major tributary of the Brantas river.

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F. Educational Facilities

Education has been the fastest growing service in Indonesia. A country which had a literary rate of only 7 percent in 1950, now boasts a population which is 80 percent literate. Some 98 percent of primary school age children attend school, some 60 and 35 percent of junior and senior secondary school age children are also now enrolled in schools.

Table 28 gives the number of schools, pupils, and teachers for pre-school, primary and junior and senior secondary schools. Secondary schools are divided into general and vocational/technical schools.

Table 28 Number of Schools, Pupils and Teachers, Surabaya 1983 and 1989
Type of School Schools 1983
Pupils
Teachers Schools 1989
Pupils
Teachers
Preschool
Primary
General Junior Secondary
Technical Junior Secondary
General Senior.Secondary
Technical Senior.Secondary
800
947
358
28
156
73
44,956
274,098
108,630
3,427
64,441
22,411
1,782
9,244
7,295
350
4,409
1,932
1,019
1,036
434
11
206
106
51,860
278,499
117,171
1,832
78,050
35,216
2,533
9,661
9,709
172
6,376
3,268

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Schools and universities may be run only by the state or private foundations. The latter may be of religious nature. Government schools are non religious, although religion is a compulsory subject. The western type schools are run by the Ministry of Education. Religious schools, with approximately 70 percent religious subjects and 30 percent academic subjects are run by the Ministry of Religious Affairs. In recent years, the percentage of religious curriculum has declined, so that it is theoretically possible for students to move from one system to the other. The reality, however, is that such moves are seldom easy because of families usually prefer one type of school to the other.

In the private school system, there are two types of schools. One has academic programs similar to the state schools', but with a stronger religious orientation; the other is more religious oriented. Many students in Catholic schools are Moslems and are not exposed to Catholic teachings. Parents send their children to a school regardless of its religious orientation, simply because of its good reputation.

Higher education is not the strength of Surabaya. Considering the size of the population, Surabaya has a relatively small share of its students in higher learning. Total enrollment at the higher education levels in 1986 was 72,391 out of a total population of 2.2 million. There are three state owned higher educational institutions, Airlangga University, Surabaya Institute of Technology, and Surabaya Institute of Teacher Education with 10,567, 2,093, and 2,220 students respectively in 1986. In addition, there is one Islamic Institute under the Ministry of Religious Affairs. There are fifty small universities and academies with a total student body of 57,511. Indonesia places no distinction between a college and a university. An academy offers a three year program meant to teach specialized skills, e.g. statistics, accounting. Some of the bright graduates may continue their education, and eventually some earn doctoral degrees.

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G. Health

Health service in Indonesia is run by the government and private sectors and by the communities. Under the Ministry of Health there are general hospitals of different categories, ranging from those for large cities to those for smaller cities. The government provides medical personnel and low cost medicine. Doctors work for the government during daytime hours and conduct their private practices in the late afternoon and evening. In the last few years, due to an increase in the number of doctors, private clinics and hospitals serve the general public twenty four hours a day. However, this is at a higher charge than that of the government run hospitals and clinics.

There are also specialized hospitals such as maternity services, mental hospitals, etc. It should be mentioned that most deliveries are taking place in homes assisted by certified midwives or traditional ones. In addition, there are hospitals run by the armed forces which serve their personnel and their relatives.

Since 1984, there have been twenty general hospitals in Surabaya, nine of which are run by the private sector. The number of beds available were 4,210 in 1984 and 4,447 in 1989. Other types of hospitals have only a small number of beds.

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In each sub-district, there is one health center (more than one in larger sub-districts), which provides outpatient services during working hours. Health centers usually serve the poorer segment of the community; the more affluent seek private practices. There were twenty-seven health centers and twenty-five sub-health centers as of 1984 and thirty-nine in and forty six respectively in 1989. To serve mothers and children, there were ninety Mother and Child Care Centers, both government and privately run in 1984 and 102 in 1987.

Family Planning Clinics are run by the Family Planning Coordinating Board. They provide family planning services on a cafeteria type basis. They are staffed by doctors and nurses serving the low to middle class patients in the community. Again, those who can afford to do so, seek private services.

Health service is minimal when one compares the number of health facilities to the local population. However, better food, housing, and public health measures have reduced mortality from a crude death rate of 23 per thousand in the 1960s to less than 8 in 1990. Since there is no good vital registration system, there is no reliable data on fertility and mortality. However, based on reported case, there were 7,461 deaths in 1983 and 7,599 in 1987. These figures are certainly underreported. It is also reported that there were 30,554 births in 1983 and 27,922 in 1987. Both are underreported, it should at least be doubled. But the decline in the number of births clearly shows the effort of family planning programs. East Java, of which Surabaya is the capital, is one of the most successful provinces in terms of family planning

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H. Tourism

Surabaya is not a tourist destination. It is mainly an administrative, industrial, and commercial center. As of 1986, there were 79 hotels with 2,992 rooms and 5,263 beds. Only about 15 of the hotels belong to one to four star hotels. The remaining have no other facilities accept sleeping rooms. Recreational facilities have been growing recently in the past few years. Restaurants, pubs, and karaoke have been growing rapidly; their numbers have yet to be properly reported.


I. Industry

Surabaya houses different kinds of industries (table 29). Basic chemicals and machinery industries more than doubled during the decade, light manufacturing also grew rapidly. In terms of employment only some 105 thousand people were employed in the industrial sectors in 1990. However, most people working in the secondary sector were in small scale industries; the numbers are difficult to obtain. In fact some are employed in the informal sector. Compared to Jakarta and Bandung, Surabaya has only a small industrial base.

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Table 29 Number of Industrial Units by Sub Sector, Surabaya, 1980, 1985, 1990
Year Basic Metal Machinery Basic Chemical Light Industry Total
  Unit Workers Unit Workers Unit Workers Unit Workers
1980
1985
1990
31
53
82
4,865
5,949
17,422
7
8
9
855
1,034
1,658
762
838
1,040
44,703
49,534
65,462
800
899
1,131
50,423
56,517
84,542

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J. Agriculture

Surabaya still has people engaged in agriculture. As the developed area increases, land devoted to agriculture decreases (table 30).

Table 30 Food Crop Area by Type of Crop, Surabaya, 1984-89 (HA)
Crop 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
Rice
Wet Rice
Upland Rice
6,175
5,895
280
6,438
6,111
327
5,545
5,387
158
4,734
4,548
186
4,726
4,448
278
4,756
4,569
187
Food Crop
(NON RICE)
Corn
Cassava
Peanut
Green Bean
Soya Bean
837
601
109
48
39
13
643
401
170
29
13
3
690
517
102
17
25
2
852
549
71
19
187
2
457
306
30
21
88
3
436
350
18
14
5
-

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Rice is grown on wet and dry land. The area planted with rice continued to declined from 1984 to 1989. This is true for non rice food crops as well. Once an area becomes residential or business, its price increases. It is then uneconomical to grow food crops of whose value is low per unit of land when compared to other uses. As is the case of with Jakarta, accelerated industrialization might lead to the extinction of agriculture in Surabaya.

Surabaya is an international harbor whose imports and exports amounted to more than four million tons in 1988 (table 31).

Table 31 Export and Import by Continent, Area of Origin and Destination, Surabaya, 1988 (Tons)
Continent/Area Export Import
Asia
Europe
America
Middle East
Oceania
Africa
U.S.S.R.
639,492
214,581
102,235
2,560
2,214
6,605
922
720,848
39,865
597,535
15,016
62,344
30,259
2,433

The bulk of export and import takes places with Asian countries, of which Japan is the major partner. Similarly movement of goods to and from America is primarily associated with the United States.

Inter-island shipping is also important, as is traditional shipping with sailboats. Special freight shipping is done by special ships, e.g. salt, fuel, etc (table 32). As seen from the table the amount of freight continued increasing from 1985 to 1988.

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Table 32 Freight Loading and Unloading, Surabaya, 1985-88 (Tons)
      Special  
Year Inter Island Traditional Non Fuel Fuel Total
1985
1986
1987
1988
2,086,300
2,358,513
2,243,191
2,620,399
687,923
587,701
569,935
652,192
3,536,530
1,245,992
1,549,818
1,724,836
6,639,009
3,014,658
3,098,678
3,030,490
-
7,512,321
7,847,336
8,426,190

Inter-island shipping has increased in importance, in the last few years, as the economy recovering from a slump caused by the drop in oil prices. In a sense this reflects the demand for local products as compared to imported materials. The deregulation which started in 1983 had unleashed the energy of people to produce and consume more. Table 33 gives the data for 1989, where inter-island movement of goods is dominant. Table 34 gives the kinds of commodities transported within the country. These include primary and manufacturing products. The list is long and is likely to grow with the development of Surabaya and its hinterland, particularly the surrounding GKS area.

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Table 33 Loading and Unloading of Freight, Surabaya (Tons) 1989
Type of Shipping Unloading Loading Total
Ocean Shipping
Non-Liquid
Liquid
General Cargo
1,401,259
213,158
1,237,465
840,034
219,081
992,614
2,241,293
432,239
2,230,079
Inter-Island Shipping
Non-Liquid
Liquid
General Cargo
611,398
3,516,333
2,679,469
1,052,941
71,048
1,049,749
1,664,339
3,587,381
3,729,218
Traditional Shipping
Non-Liquid
Liquid
General Cargo
5,167
-
311,538
129,701
3,505
159,187
134,868
3,505
470,725

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Table 34 Inter-island Commodity Transported (Tons), Surabaya, 1989
Commodity Unloaded Loaded Total
Rice
Sugar
Wheat Flour
Tapioca
Corn
Coconut
Cloves
Rattan
Rubber
Coffee
Nutmeg
Cocoa
Tobacco
Other Products
Marine Products
Dried Fish
Fish Paste
Loga
Processed Wood
Plywood
Iron
Scrap Iron
Kaolin
Glue
Paper
Chemical Fertilizer
Natural Fertilizer
Building Material
Cigarettes
Frying Oil
Palm Oil
Coconut Oil
Grease Oil
Alkyl
Methanol
12,766
1,550
10
46,053
578
137,247
18,024
40,785
50,277
9,101
4,543
5,728
82
25,077
2,433
10,435
13,662
716,058
164,633
73,893
71,745
28,505
155,032
731
58,292
380,737
2,787
38,363
48
170
245,313
2,515
180
23,254
14,476
340,783
271,295
86,359
6,078
4,761
-
-
164
25
1,732
170
708
10,429
14,116
6
-
-
-
2,410
2,839
83,056
6,105
182
9,982
37,554
85,017
157,092
84,055
41,131
22,880
2,700
2,032
25,174
-
26
353,549
272,845
86,369
52,131
5,339
137,247
18,024
40,949
50,302
10,833
4,713
6,436
10,511
39,193
2,439
10,435
13,662
716,058
167,043
76,732
154,801
34,610
154,214
10,713
95,846
465,754
159,879
122,418
41,179
23,013
248,013
4,547
25,254
23,254
14,502
Total 2,355,083 1,298,861 3,653,944

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Table 35 gives the kind of commodities exported through the harbor of Surabaya. Primary products (bran, pellets, corn, molasses, etc.) make up the larger portion of commodities relative to processed goods such as plywood.

Table 35 Commodities Exported, Surabaya, 1989
Commodity Voloume (Tons) Commodity Volume (Tons)
Rattan
Coffee
Bran
Pellet
Animal Feed
Wood
Plywood
Tobacco
Rubber
Paper
Wires
Cocoa
Plates
Handicraft
Resin
Furniture
Aluminum
Ghee
Corn
Spices
Confection
Molasses
Textile
Food Products
Drinks
1,697
49,434
125,045
466,954
34,372
197,381
57,525
13,094
58,754
74,957
73,509
16,170
31,902
6,815
3,519
15,917
5,847
2,473
153,165
2,587
2,114
173,900
12,581
13,240
2,650
Shrimp
Frogleg
Bekicot
Seaweed
Marine Products
Palm Oil
Coconut Oil
Animal Fat
Medicine
Vital Bottle
Kapok Seed
Cashen Nuts
Kerupuk Chips
Cassettes
Glass
Animal Skin
Wood Powder
Fertilizer
Pumice
Rice
Ethanol
Marble
Steel
Alcohol
Others
29,053
1,037
2,372
6,285
14,783
3,000
30,485
1,165
3,930
6,434
4,913
3,207
1,968
1,460
48,668
237
6,473
1,590
53,211
52,311
1,500
6,637
8,192
133,801
133,801
Total     2,051,729

Imported goods are mostly intermediate products, used as inputs for industries~ in Surabaya and East Java. Rice, sugar, and some food products fluctuate according to domestic production. In 1984, Indonesia achieved self-sufficiency in rice. This has been mean to a long term trend, thereby allowing for the fat and lean years (both a result of climatic conditions). It would seem that severe droughts occur ever eight years or so (table 36).

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Table 36 Commodities Imported, Surabaya, 1989
Commodity Voloume (Tons) Commodity Volume (Tons)
Spare parts
Chemicals
Steel
Paper
Used Paper
Pulp/Kraft
Powder
Bone Powder
Cotton
Aluminum/Ingot
TextilefYarn/ylon
Palm Oil
Vegetable Oil
Tobacco
Wires
Carbon
Potash
Wood/Oak
Rice
Methanol
Fuel Oil
Sugar
Sulphur
Corn
Majun
Molasses
32,913
65,544
151,640
33,463
185,125
149,706
2,474
23,447
40,523
14,769
7,117
104,044
766
4,994
10,402
1,189
40,876
7,651
59,683
250
76,894
48,657
8,712
4,000
401
415
Tools
Plastic
Scrap Iron
Industrial Raw Material
Oil
Animal Feed
Fish Powder
Minerals
Wheat
Fertilizer
Soda Ash
Animal Fat
Milk/Milk Products
Machinery
Alcohol
Carbide
Rubber
Dolomit
Industrial Salt
Fire Brand
Coconut
Varanol
Avatar
Jute
Fresh Fish
Others
42,685
121,370
295,480
175,520
13,579
162,038
15,835
54,676
616,171
25,147
111,712
2,820
6,902
13,434
185
359
2,595
246
33,500
2,170
5,247
205
14,000
1,514
562
58,365
Total     2,851,882

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K. The Future of Surabaya

The government of Indonesia had requested JICA to make a study on the Surabaya Metropolitan Area, commonly called Gerbangkertosusila (G.K.S.). The study-was completed in 1982 and has helped form the basis of future plans. One important decision not mentioned in the study was the building of a bridge linking Surabaya with Kamal, on tlie adjacent island of Madura. As of now, the two cities are connected by ferry boats. The idea is to develop industries on the island of Madura which is barren and infertile. It may then save the fertile Brantas delta for agricultural use.

These are some of the projections of the JICA study. It basically views Surabaya, within the framework of SMA, as a growth pole for modernization and rationalization of the economic system. The study team proposed aggressive industrialization as an overall principle and plans a functional urban structure to support the industrialization:

(i) The industrialization should be promoted - SMA as one of high level industrial
development core in East Java

- The national aim of industrialization was first on processing of raw materials. The next step was to process the basic raw materials to produce finished goods with high value added.
-For G.KS. employment opportunity of 2.25 million should be made available by the year 2000.

- The regional economy would require efficient development related to other areas.

-G.KS. is one of a number of designated industrial development regions.

-Four key factors were recognized for industrialization of G.KS.:

1) the existence of Surabaya harbor, Tanjung Perak.
2) the function of major transportation mode connecting Surabaya with other urban areas of East Java.
3) the accumulation of financial, trading and wholesaling facilities in the distribution
sector.
4) the function of management and administration.

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(ii) The basic concept of functional urban structure is to activate economies of agglomeration. A principle way to control urbanization is to make obvious the functional structure and to supervise the re-development of disorderly development by compulsory measures.

The following considerations were suggested:

- ensuring an appropriate extent of urban area. A maximum of one unified urban area is generally less than thirty km radius and within thirty minutes travel by vehicle.

- cargo flow and passenger flow should be separated by an interval system. The passenger flow is ensured in the central corridor while the cargo flow should be in the outer corridor with a grid pattern connecting both.

- In order to have an efficient connection with outer region, considering the high development potential of three radial corridors, it will be necessary to develop a dual trunk system.

- Major industrial facilities, Le. manufacturing factories, truck terminals and distribution centers, wholesalers and port are to be allocated along major trunk routes supporting regional activities located outside the CBD but not too far from residential areas.

- Mass transportation is the foundation of a functioning urban structure. It is suggested that the bus system be substituted by an urban rapid railway system.

There are four major SMA development currently in progress in Indonesia, i.e. Jabotabek around Jakarta, Greater Bandung with satellite cities, Gerbangkertosusila and Belmera. The first three SMA are located in Java, while Belmera, an acronym for Belawan, Medan and Tanjung Morawa, is located in North Sumatra. Except for Bandung which is an upland city, the others are located in the outer rim of the Indonesian crescent.

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IV. Comparison Between Padang and Surabaya

Padang is located on a small strip of land along the coast of West Sumatra. A few kilometers east from the city border is the edge of the Bukit Barisan mountain range, which divides Sumatra into a large low eastern plane and a narrow plane between the mountain range and the Indian Ocean.

Hence Padang practically serves only the province of West Sumatra. In fact the eastern part of West Sumatra province beyond the mountain range might be better served by river harbors along the strait of Karimata, between the strait of Malacca and the Java Sea.

As has been mentioned in earlier sections, Padang harbor was important when steamships were fueled by coal. Technology has changed the picture. In addition, the growth of Singapore has changed the sea route from Europe, particularly Holland. Prior to the growth of Singapore, the route from Holland would be through the Indian Ocean and the inner waters of the Netherlands Indies, and through the Strait of Sunda where the Krakatau volcano is located. With the growth of Singapore as a transitory harbor, the Strait of Malacca became an important sea way, particularly after World War ll. Hence Padang became isolated from the domestic as well as the international transportation route.

Surabaya on the other hand has a strategic location. In the past, it has had to compete with Makassar (now Ujung Padang) located in the land of Buginese (people who supposedly crossed the ocean in their "Phinisi" sailing boat as far as Madagascar). When cloves mostly grown in Moluccas and coconut in Sulawesi were relatively important, Ujung Padang, with its natural harbor, was a strong competitor of Surabaya. The rebellions in the region of Sulawesi until the earlier 1960s made Ujung Padang a less viable harbor. Efforts to industrialize the area are discouraged by unfavorable land rights based on customary law. This placed Surabaya as the center of transportation in the eastern part of Indonesia.

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Surabaya is also the center of industrialization in East Java, in the context of GKS area. East Java has also had the luck of dynamic, future oriented local leadership. .Manpower is abundant, comparable to the best in the country.

Compared to Padang, where in-migration is low and out-migration to other areas is high, Surabaya is a net receiving area, particularly if seen as part of GKS. Large numbers of commuters create a gap between day and evening population, although the number is so far not known.

Unlike Padang, where it is said that the best people would leave and the mediocre would stay, Surabaya attracted the best from its hinterland. On average, West Sumatrans who place education high on their list, are better travelled and more alert than East Javanese, their numbers are relatively small. East Javanese, are more open mindeq. than their Central Javanese counterparts and are more receptive to new ideas. Like West Sumatrans, East Javanese are practicing Islam more than the syncretic typical Central Javanese. Hence East Java is more dynamic than Central Java, and Surabaya and Jakarta attract more people from there. Semarang, the capital of central Java does not seem to have the power to retain the good people to help develop the province into something comparable with the East and West.

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While Padang is located in a subcultural area, the Minang- kabau with strong cohesion, Surabaya is a "national city", although predominantly Javanese, accommodating people from all over the country. With such diversity, tolerance is also higher. As an example, night life in Surabaya is comparable to harbor cities of similar size. Recreational facilities serve different tastes there. There is no night life in Padang. Even most restaurants offer only local food which manages to attract the taste of most Indonesian and some foreigners, but variations are limited. Observance of the Islamic religion precludes recreation beyond the religiously acceptable limits.

On harbor activities Padang has only limited commodities to export. However, the shipment of cement and coal from Padang either for export or inter-island destinations amount to over a million tons. This gives the impression of Padang being close to Surabaya in terms of outward shipment.

East Java, in this case Gersik,(part of GKS area) produces millions of tons of cement and fertilizers. Gersik, however, has a separate harbor to export these products. If it were shipped through Surabaya it would add a few million tons of outgoing and incoming freight as well.

There have been assertions that Padang would eventually become the export harbor for cement, and that coal from West Sumatra would be used as fuel for its expanded cement factories. When new cement factories begin production, the national production will be 25 million tons instead of the present 17 million. West Sumatra would be assigned to produce cement for export, while domestic needs will be supplied by factories elsewhere.

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With the increase in electric supply from a hydropower dam currently in reparation, West Sumatra might widen its industrial base, which would have a positive impact on Padang.

Looking into the future, Padang and Surabaya will follow two different paths. Padang has a potential to grow, but geographic and factor endowments might be limiting. One thing the local government has not been successful in so far is finding ways to attract capital and skill from those who prosper in other areas. West Sumatra receives a large amount of transfer payments from the sons and daughters elsewhere. These are even larger than the amount the local government receives from taxes. However, it is likely the money received by relatives is used for maintenance. West Sumatra is a province where poverty does not seem obvious. Everyone looks well fed and properly dressed. Houses look well maintained. The roads are clean, and Padang has received a golden award after winning the Presidential award for cleanliness five times.

Surabaya is blessed with a strategic location in Java, the center of political, economic, and cultural activities in the archipelago. With a population of more than 40 million out of the 120 million of Java, it has a large pool of manpower and consumers. Its shai,e of industrialization Indonesia is unlimited. Being the center of GKS it has the benefit of agglomeration and at the same time is protected from an influx of people already screened by its smaller satellite cities.

The year 2000, when Indonesia will try to start its transformation from an agricultural to a balanced agricultural and industrial country will likely put Surabaya, Jakarta, Bandung, and Medan in the forefront of development with Padang trailing behind.

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CONTENTS
1. Background

2. Padang

3.Surabaya

4.Comparison between Padang and Surabaya
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